Orpheus - depicted in ancient Roman Floor Mosaic
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If you are a subscriber to the email version then you probably knew this already. You would also know that ZooNews Digest pre-dates any of the others. It was there before FaceBook. It was there shortly after the internet became popular and was a 'Blog' before the word had been invented. ZooNews Digest reaches zoo people.
I remain committed to the work of GOOD zoos,
not DYSFUNCTIONAL zoos.
Zion's big cat pride
set for a public revival
A troubled big cat
park in Northland has been closed to the public for years, with its population
of lions and tigers in decline. Harrison Christian goes inside Kamo Wildlife
Sanctuary as it gears up for a re-opening, which the park's founder claims he'll
fight to stop.
The bad headlines
came lightly at first, then thick and fast. Financial trouble; domestic
violence; alleged mistreatment of animals. Craig "the Lion Man" Busch
collected dozens of lions and tigers at a facility in Northland before he left
the country – and the cats – to start again in South Africa.
Four tigers; two
cheetahs; seventeen lions and one black leopard. That's the full inventory
remaining at what is now called Kamo Wildlife Sanctuary. Where the park once
had almost 40 animals a decade ago, there are now only 24 left.
Nestled in the
countryside east of Whangarei and echoing with the roars of the big cats, the
park has stood dormant since the government ordered it closed to the public
four years ago. There's been talk of a revival ever since, but dates indicated
for a re-opening have come and gone.
operators kept things running; the cats might be off-limits to the public, but
they still have to eat, getting through an average of four cows per week. A new
level of activity is stirring behind the fences under Australian couple Janette
and Dale Vallance, who plan to have tourists through the gates this summer.
and conservation: Dubai shows how
As Dubai grows into
the metropolis we know it as, so does the need for environmental awareness and
conservation. While many conservationists continue to insist animals solely
belong in the wild, what they often fail to address is the fact that the boundaries
of their natural habitats are shrinking by the day. Regrettably, animals are
increasingly coming under the threats of poaching, global warming, and
conflict. In this context, Dubai Safari Park, which imported older elephants
and other animals last year, is playing a critical role in the conservation of
endangered species. It is also sensitising tourists and residents about
protection and conservation.
Timothy Husband, the
park’s technical director, gave his assurance to a local newspaper that the
desert elephants, brought in from Namibia, were to enhance breeding and care
facilities, and for rides. “Some of them are critically endangered. We aim to
increase the n
ESSENTIAL READ FOR
EVERY BIG CAT 'HANDLER'
Dubai Safari park to
close on May 15
The Dubai Safari
will close its doors to the public on May 15 as the attraction undergoes some
"beautification works", it was announced on Saturday.
The park will
welcome visitors again on October 1, following the completion of the
embellishment programme scheduled to take place during the summer months.
The activists are
wrong: Aquariums support conservation
Judging by the
dozens of aquariums around the country offering Mother’s Day programming, tens
of thousands of American moms appear set to spend their special day getting a
front row seat to the majestic and awe-inspiring creatures of the sea. For good
reason. A trip to the local aquarium is something the whole family can enjoy,
with sea life giving moms a well-deserved break from entertaining the kids.
activist movement called Empty the Tanks is trying to spoil the fun. Today, it
is hosting coordinated worldwide protests demanding that aquariums return their
inhabitants to the sea. Its mission statement is, “End captivity, protect the
The 26th South East
Asian Zoos and Aquariums Association (SEAZA) Annual Conference 2018 (SEAZA2018)
Bustard’s numbers down to eight
A latest report by
the Wildlife Institute of India (WII) has revealed that Maharashtra may have
less than eight Great Indian Bustards (GIB) currently. With the number of GIBs
pegged so low in a recent survey, the forest department will be focusing on measures
to conserve the endangered bird species.
stated that the count of GIB was around 30, decades ago. The forest department
will be focusing on protecting the grasslands and monitor the eleven clusters
across the state, which have been identified as the species' habitat. Moreover
it will also be focusing on preventing fire in these areas.
The GIB is listed
under Schedule I of the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972, and listed as an
endangered species. A report on
potential habitat by the WII, in collaboration with the state forest
department, was recently released and it stated that during a survey in
September 2017, out of 1,401 respondents, 72 confirmed that they have spotted
the bird in their area. “While doing the survey, the GIB was not found.
However, we had kept dummy birds throughout an area of 55,000 sq km to know the
detection rate of these species. Only 13 per cent of the dummy birds could be
identified during the survey, leading to the conclusion that less than eight
GIB are there in the state,” said M.K. Rao, additional principal chief conservator
of forest (Wildlife West).
“We had carried out
radio telemetry survey for two years, where we found that t
Officially Bans Dolphinariums
In a victory for
captive dolphins, Mexico City announced an official ban on dolphinariums last
week, putting an end to captive dolphins within the city limits.
According to La
Verdad, the reform not only bans captive dolphins, it also includes sea lions.
All captive dolphins and sea lions within the city must be relocated to
accredited sanctuaries within the next six months. The animals’ new homes will
be thoroughly evaluated prior to the move in order to ensure that they are as
close as possible to the natural habitats of dolphins and sea lions in the
wild. Those who do not comply with the new law will face fines ranging from
300,000 to 300,960 pesos (about $15k).
The vast majority of
politicians were in favor of the ban, with 40 vote
Zookeeper mauled to
death at Chinese animal centre which sold 'tiger wine'
A zookeeper was
reportedly killed by a tiger at a controversial wildlife centre in southern
China accused of selling "tiger wine".
The man, who was
aged around 50, went to clean a tiger enclosure with a colleague at the
Xiongsen Bear and Tiger Mountain Village in Guilin, a city in the Guangxi
autonomous region on Tuesday (May 8) morning, according to China National
His colleague left
the man, who has not been named, alone in the enclosure at around 11am.
His body was found
at around 2.30pm and his family were told later that day that he had been
mauled by a tiger.
Zoo losing money
Ähtäri Zoo, which is
hosting two pandas from China, is seeking a million euros from the city of
Ähtäri, its main financier, to help cover last year’s losses.
consolidated financial statements put it around one million euros in the red.
Some 800,000 euros of the losses at the animal park in South Ostrobothnia are
directly panda-related. The zoo is, however, upbeat about the future. Visitor
numbers have been growing in the past few months, and operations are expected
back in the black during 2018, according to Ähtäri Zoo CEO Jonna Pietilä.
Bear from Romanian zoo tastes freedom for the first
time in 28 years
Pamela, a female
bear from the Zoo in the Romanian city of Oradea, got the chance to roam free
after 28 years in a cage, local Stirileprotv.ro reported.
the Oradea Zoo asked the Millions of Friends Association to take the bear, as
she was being attacked all the time by her grown up cubs. The situation had
forced the zoo employees to move Pamela to an even smaller cage, which led to
an unhappy life for the animal.
Thus, the female
bear was taken to the Libearty Bear S
The Beginnings of
Waikiki's Wildlife Treasure: A Conversation with Paul Breese, the Founding
Director of the Honolulu Zoo
In 1947, Paul Breese
was named the first director of the Honolulu Zoo and was tasked with turning a
small bird park into a world-class zoological park. With the help of Belle
Benchley of the San Diego Zoo, he built the zoo from the ground up and put together
an impressive collection of exotic animals. The zoo soon had significant
breeding success with a number of species including Galapagos tortoises (the
first successful births in America), cassowaries (the first successful birth
and rearing in captivity), Asian hornbills and giraffes. Most noteworthy,
Breese became Chairman of the Nene Advisory Committee and the Honolulu Zoo
successfully saved the Hawaiian geese from extinction through the Nene
Restoration Project. Here is his story.
Like the fossil fuel
industry, trophy hunting is unsustainable
Trophy hunting is
like the fossil fuel industry. They’re both messy, unsustainable, in need of an
alternative approach and, ultimately, fail to deliver on their promises.
Trophy hunting is a
colonial construct with an anachronistic view on the environment. While it has
served certain interests, its failures to effectively deliver on wider
conservation promises and its negative impacts outweigh any benefits it
accrues. It’s time to search for more effective and sustainable alternatives. 2
entrenched in conservation programmes, doubts around trophy hunting started a
long time back. Some argue that distaste for sport killing began when Theodore
Roosevelt returned from East Africa in 1909 with his hunting bag of over 500
trophies, including 17 lions, 11 elephants and 20 rhino.
indiscriminate hunting had already placed many of the continent’s charismatic
species under threat. Today, and with many of these same species still
UAE releases 1,000
Officials of the UAE
Embassy in Islamabad have released 1,000 Houbara bustards in Rahim Yar Khan
region of Punjab province as part of the country’s commitment and efforts for
preservation of the bird.
the Fund for Houbara Conservation Abu Dhabi, officials of Forest, Wildlife and
Fisheries Department of Punjab and media were also present.
Speaking on the
occasion, UAE Ambassador in Islamabad Hamad Obaid Al Zaabi said that his
country has achieved a distinguished position on the global level for its
efforts to conserve the Houbara bustard. Several projec
Nearly Two Years
Later, ‘World’s Saddest Polar Bear’ No Longer Sad?
As animal welfare
increasingly becomes a part of the public conversation, it’s becoming more
common to see stories about animals living in situations that are harmful to
their mental and physical health. Take SeaWorld’s dolphins, or Yemen’s starving
zoo animals—or the tragic case of Pizza the polar bear.
Too often we never
find out what ultimately happens to these animals. Do they ever leave their
decrepit enclosures in that zoo? Do they ever get a reprieve from performing
for people? Do they survive their near-death experiences in captivity?
In a new series,
“Where are they now?” Wildlife Watch will report on animals whose plights have
elicited widespread concern and sympathy, to see how they’re faring now. We
begin the series today with an update on a bear called Pizza, who’s been called
“the world’s saddest polar bear.” Please send us an email at ngwildli
captivity give birth at the same time of year as those in the wild
Many species have a
specific mating season when living in their natural habitat. The young animals
are usually born in spring when environmental conditions are optimal for their
survival, while births at less favorable times such as the start of winter are
thus avoided. Depending on whether seasonal reproduction is a strong
characteristic of a species or not, the time period for births will be a longer
or a shorter window.
Researchers at the
Clinic for Zoo Animals, Exotic Pets and Wildlife at the University of Zurich
investigated the seasonality of more than 100 species of carnivores. As it is
rather difficult to ob-serve births of animals in their natural habitat, they
evaluated data from 150,000 births that took place in zoos. Zoos consistently
document births and forward the i
Patience pays off
for elephants' keepers in North Sumatra
A certain bond,
albeit with caveats, seems to define the relationship between tame elephants
and their mahout ( keepers) in Mount Leuser National Park’s Tangkahan Elephant
Ecotourism Camp in Langkat, North Sumatra.
Ecotourism Camp’s elephant and mahout coordinator Sudiono recalled the time
when his wife was feverish, he told her to see a doctor.
“When an elephant is
ill, I look after it day and night until it is fully recovered. I am afraid it
will die. If it refuses to eat, I’ll go the extra mile to find the food it
likes such as ripe bananas,” the 44-year-old said.
Under the current
arrangement, all sick elephants have to be referred to the Veterinary Society
for Sumatran Wildlife Conservation.
“I don’t really know
why I have such a deep affection for elephants, which is just there by itself
and is perhaps forged by the many years we have spent together,” Sudiono said.
He and the 11 other
mahout under him accompanied Environment and Forestry Ministry officials during
a recent visit to Tangkahan, which was formerly an illegal loggers’ transit
What will it take to
stop the animal selfie phenomenon?
LAST WEEK, IT was
reported that kangaroos at a popular tourist area in New South Wales had begun
attacking tourists for their food and causing significant injuries. Why? In a
bid to get the perfect selfie, tourists were coaxing the kangaroos with carrots
and if the animals didn’t get the carrots, or any other food high in sugar,
they would become aggressive.
The area around the
Morisset hospital, which boasts a notoriously large population of kangaroos
making it a popular tourist destination, had signs telling tourists not to feed
the kangaroos, not only because the animals were known to become aggressive but
because it was to the detriment of the animal’s health. Despite this, people
The Zoo Keepers Part in the Illegal Animal Trade
For lemurs, size of
forest fragments may be more important than degree of isolation
Occurrence of these
endangered primates rises with patch size, but is mixed for patch connectivity
probability of three lemur species in tropical dry forest increases with
fragment size but can increase or decrease with fragment isolation depending on
the species, according to a study published May 9, 2018 in the open-access
journal PLOS ONE by Travis Steffens and Shawn Lehman from University of
Lemurs live only in
Madagascar, and nearly all species are at risk of extinction primarily due to
habitat loss and fragmentation. The independent effects of forest loss and of
forest fragmentation are not well understood, however. To assess the relative impact
of these threats, Steffens and Lehman surveyed lemurs in fragmented dry
deciduous forest in Ankarafantsika National Park, Madagascar between June and
November 2011, observing six lemur species in 42 forest fragments. The
researchers then used incidence function models to examine whether the lemurs
formed metapopulations, spatially-separated populations within a species, in a
fragmented landscape and under different forest fragmentation conditions.
simulations, the researche
The Last Days of the
Every year, more
than 400,000 crabs are bled for the miraculous medical substance that flows
through their bodies—now pharmaceutical companies are finally committing to an
alternative that doesn't harm animals.
Horseshoe crabs are
sometimes called “living fossils” because they have been around in some form
for more than 450 million years. In this time, the Earth has gone through
multiple major ice ages, a Great Dying, the formation and subsequent breaking
up of Pangaea, and an asteroid impact that killed the dinosaurs and most of
life on Earth yet again. In other words, horseshoe crabs have truly seen some
Yet, I would
conjecture, some of their strangest experiences must have come in just the past
few decades, as one of the soft-bodied mammals that came after dinosaurs began
using their hands to scoop horseshoe crabs out of the ocean en masse.
Contemporary humans do not deliberately kill the horseshoe crabs—as did
previous centuries of farmers catching them for fertilizer or fishermen using
them as bait. Instead, they scrub th
Eating Horseshoe Crab
Standard for zoo
We approved a new
standard for zoo containment facilities.
The new standard
comes into force on 1 July 2018, and replaces the MAF Biosecurity New Zealand
Standard 154.03.04 Containment Facilities for Zoo Animals.
However, there will
be a transitional period of 12 months, ending on 30 June 2019, during which zoo
containment facilities may choose to comply with the previous standard.
Read the new
Standard for zoo containment facilities (pdf 700KB)
Read the decision
document for the approval of the new standard (pdf 200KB)
We received three
submissions during the consultation.
View the submissions
received (pdf 1MB)
View the report on
the submissions (pdf 400KB)
MPI is developing
guidance material to help people who have to comply with the standard. It will
include information about how the requirements can be met, what measures will
be considered acceptable, and what information needs to be provided to MPI to a
A judge just raised
deep questions about chimpanzees’ legal rights
For several years,
an animal rights organization has sought to convince New York courts that
chimpanzees kept by private owners are “legal persons” with a right to be free.
For several years, the courts have rejected that argument.
New York’s highest
court did the same on Tuesday, denying an appeal of a lower court’s refusal to
grant writs of habeas corpus to two caged chimps named Tommy and Kiko. But in a
striking concurring opinion that was cheered by the chimps’ advocates, one judge
wrote that the legal question at the heart of the case — whether all animals
are mere property or things — is far from settled.
“Does an intelligent
nonhuman animal who thinks and plans and appreciates life as human beings do
have the right to the protection of the law against arbitrary cruelties and
enforced detentions visited on him or her?” wrote Eugene Fahey, one of five
Court of Appeals judges who ruled on the matter. “This is not merely a definit
Zoo Plantman: A
Conversation with Rob Halpern, Owner of Zoo Horticulture Consulting and Design
Rob Halpern has
carved a role in the zoo industry as the authority on zoo landscapes. While he
will always be remembered for his work on the renowned Congo Gorilla Forest at
the Bronx Zoo, he has worked on dozens of projects with his company Zoo
Horticulture Consulting and Design. Halpern believes design of planting is
essential to the quality of an exhibit. “When I design the planting, I think of
how it will be like grown in,” he articulated. “Landscape should change over
time and the people in charge of running them should make them better than I
made them. The whole role of horticulture in zoos is interesting. It’s an
ongoing battle.” Here is his story.
Przewalskii: "ballet dancer" on China's plateau
Przewalskiis are seen in Haibei Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, northwest
China's Qinghai Province, April 26, 2018. The number of Procapra Przewalskii,
an antelope species being listed as endangered, has increased to a record high
of 2,057 in the latest survey. Przewalski's gazelle was named after Nikolai
Mikhaylovich Przhevalsky, a Russian explorer who found a specimen and brought
it back to St. Petersburg in 1875. A typical Procapra Przewalskii is 110 to 120
centimeters long and weighing about 15 kilograms. The long-horn animal with a
short tail was described as a "ballet dancer" on plateau by
Przhevalsky because it jumps in a beautiful curve.
Venture Bound: Zoos
work to save species
Carla and I, as fans
of zoos, are particularly interested in how successful zoos will be in trying
to save endangered species.
For years we enjoyed
taking our daughters and later our grandchildren to see the exciting variety of
animals at exhibitions. When zoos first opened, animals were mostly confined in
cages. This is an uncomfortable situation for the animals with little stimulation,
little room to move around and few natural surroundings. The problems with
these cages were recognized and remedied over time with zoo environments that
more resembled animals’ natural habitats.
For example, at the
San Diego Safari Park and Busch Gardens in Florida we were the ones in cages
(buses) traveling the wide open areas in which the animals also had housing.
The space problem
has not been completely solved. At the St Louis Zoo although the elephant area
was bigger than that of other zoos, they still seemed unhappy. They stood
swinging their trunks and slowly shifting their weight from side to side,
When I attempted to
take a picture, two of them
Would You Capture a
Behaviour or Shape the Behaviour?
In 2008 I started
with my travel addiction. Seeing other places is just wonderful. I’m fortunate
that I know quite some friends who share the same passion I have in the field
and that actually allowed me to visit many different Zoos and Aquariums over the
years. Throughout that time, I was able to shadow most of the trainers at these
facilities what helped me to become the person I am today. I always brought
questions with me what I wanted to know or wanted to see. One of the
discussions that popped up at one of the facilities I was had to do with
The precarious lives
of rare albino animals
Alba is one of the
rarest creatures on Earth: She's the only known albino member of a dwindling
population of Bornean orangutans. Her snowy fur and inquisitive pale eyes make
her an otherworldly anomaly - and such a target that people are taking unprecedented
measures to keep her safe.
To protect her from
poachers, the Borneo Orangutan Survival Foundation has spent $80,000 on an
island off Indonesia where Alba will reside for the rest of her life. The
sanctuary, where Alba will live with three other orangutans starting in June,
will be patrolled around the clock by security guards.
Many zoos have
attracted crowds by keeping rare white animals, including Snowflake the gorilla
at the Barcelona Zoo and Onya-Birri, an albino koala, at the San Diego Zoo. But
wolves find solace at Greek sanctuary
Orphaned as an
infant, three-year-old Patrick takes a wary view of visitors. He crouches low,
licks his claws and starts humming - a bear's equivalent of thumb-sucking.
"It soothes him
when he's stressed," says Melina Avgerinou, a caretaker at the Arcturos
bear sanctuary in northern Greece.
Patrick's tale is
typical of many bears that have found refuge in the Arcturos sanctuary at
Nymfaio on the slopes of Mount Vitsi, some 600km northwest of Athens.
Everything You (and
John Oliver) Need to Know About Koala Chlamydia
Delhi zoo explores mix and match idea
Call it a
mix-and-mate proposal, the first in Delhi Zoo in the last 27 years. White
tigress Nirbhaya and Royal Bengal tiger Karan have been moved into the same
enclosure—No. 10—by alert zoo officials, who claim they have noticed a certain
“chemistry” building up between them over the last several months.
The obvious purpose
is to get the big cats to make cubs, May-June being the prime mating season for
tigers. The last time such a thing was done was in 1991, when Sundar—a yellow
tiger—and Shanti—a white tigress—were moved in together. That union had produced
twin cubs: Swaraj, who was white, and Aman, who was yellow.
This time round, all
eyes are on Nirbhaya, born in Delhi Zoo in 2015, and Karan, born in Mysore Zoo
in 2013 and brought to Delhi a year later. For both, this will be the first
mating experience, zoo officials said.
“In the two days
that they have been in the same enclosure, they have mated 15 times. So, our
Concern over fate of
tiger at defunct Melios zoo
the fate of one of the Siberian tigers at a controversial Nicosia private zoo
following reports by animal activists that one of the two tigers is believed to
be dead as it has not been seen in its enclosure.
A lawyer from
Luxemburg, advisor to a number of animal protection associations, said in an
email on Monday night that one of the two Siberian tigers in Melios Pet Centre
in the Nicosia district is feared to be dead. She said that following a report
by a visitor that the animal was missing from its enclosure, and after
enquiries, the zoo owner, Menelaos Menelaou, confirmed the animal was dead but
that he did not inform authorities.
Tricolour Burial For
Peacock In Delhi, Activists Say "Protocol Not Followed"
activists criticised the handling of the case, saying animals should be
preferably be cremated in the presence of forest officials.
has to be done in a supervised environment in the presence of a forest
official. The post-mortem has to be photographed and videographed,"
Kartick Satyanarayan, co-founder and chairman of Wildlife SOS, said.
animal should be preferably cremated in the presence of a forest official, to
avoid harvesting of any body parts with an intent to smuggle," he said.
There is an
incinerator in the Delhi Zoo as well, the official of the NGO said.
Gauri Maulekhi said that the forest department needs to be pro-active in
assisting the police in such cases.
"I am not aware
of any such protocols. There is no such thing t
Zookeeper is mauled
to death by a tiger while cleaning the cage of the beast at a Chinese zoo
A zookeeper has been
mauled to death by a tiger at a zoo in south China.
The 50-year-old man
was cleaning the cage alone as the beast charged in and launched an attack.
The zoo, which
claims to keep about 1,300 tigers of different species, has confirmed and
reported the incident to local police.
Pressure mounts on
‘zoo’ as minister confirms tiger death
Costas Kadis confirmed on Wednesday that one of the two Siberian tigers in a
Nicosia private zoo has died, and that he will preside over a meeting with all
state services to discuss how to best handle the case of Melios Pet Centre.
The zoo, in Ayioi
Trimithias in the Nicosia district, has been operating illegally since last
September, the minister said, and that both the town planning service and the
state vet services have reported the owner, Menelaos Menelaou, to the police.
Canadian zoo faces
charges after taking bear out for ice cream at Dairy Queen
A private zoo in the
Canadian province of Alberta is facing charges after a bear from the facility
was taken through a drive-thru Dairy Queen in a pickup truck and hand-fed ice
cream through the vehicle’s window.
News of the outing
emerged earlier this year after Discovery Wildlife Park, located about 70 miles
north of Calgary in the town of Innisfail, posted a video on social media
showing a captive Kodiak bear sitting in the passenger seat of a truck.
The video later
showed the one-year-old bear, known as Berkley, leaning out of the truck’s
window, enthusiastically licking an ice cream cone held by the owner of a local
criticism, the video – along with a second one showing Berkley licking frosting
off an ice cream
Taronga Zoo settles
dispute with rival over 'Sydney Zoo' name
A Federal Court cage
fight between Taronga Zoo and a rival over the name Sydney Zoo has been settled
out of court, with the western Sydney newcomer set to keep the name.
In a joint statement
released on Thursday, the parties said they were "pleased to confirm that
they have resolved the legal proceedings over the use of the name ‘Sydney
New Meetings and Conferences updated Here
If you have anything to add then please email me at firstname.lastname@example.org
I will include it when I get a minute. You know it makes sense.
Recent Zoo Vacancies
Vacancies in Zoos and Aquariums and Wildlife/Conservation facilities around the World
After more than 50 years working in private, commercial and National zoos in the capacity of keeper, head keeper and curator Peter Dickinson started to travel. He sold house and all his possessions and hit the road. He has traveled extensively in Turkey, Southern India and much of South East Asia before settling in Thailand. In his travels he has visited well over 200 zoos and many more before 'hitting the road' and writes about these in his blog http://zoonewsdigest.blogspot.com/
or on Hubpages http://hubpages.com/profile/Peter+Dickinson
Peter earns his living as an independent international zoo consultant, critic and writer. Currently working as Curator of Penguins in Ski Dubai. United Arab Emirates. He describes himself as an itinerant zoo keeper, one time zoo inspector, a dreamer, a traveler, an introvert, a people watcher, a lover, a thinker, a cosmopolitan, a writer, a hedonist, an explorer, a pantheist, a gastronome, sometime fool, a good friend to some and a pain in the butt to others.
"These are the best days of my life"
Independent International Zoo Consultant
+971 50 4787 122 | email@example.com | Skype: peter.dickinson48
Independent International Zoo Consultant
+971 50 4787 122 | firstname.lastname@example.org | Skype: peter.dickinson48