Friday, October 31, 2014

Zoo News Digest October 2014 (ZooNews 902)

Zoo News Digest October 2014 (ZooNews 902)

Happy Halloween to all

Dear Colleagues,

Today is the first day of my vacation. October has been a really busy month for me, one of those where I don't seem to have had two minutes to rub together. There is always something that eats into my time. I did however manage to get away to attend the International Training Conference in Twycross and very quick aside trips to Edinburgh and Bourton -on-the- Water. Met a lot of people I only previously knew by name along with a few old friends. Going away meant preparation and coming back meant catching up. Planning for vacation meant preparation again. Sunday I fly to Thailand for wild relaxation. There will be more catching up to do when I get back. Life is good.

Sorry though that I will miss the 'Animal Keepers, Trainers and Wildlife Professionals of the Middle East' night out on the 6th November. Even sorrier that I will miss the next meeting of Arabian Association of Zoos and Aquariums in Al Ain. We can't have everything though.


I remain committed to the work of GOOD zoos, not DYSFUNCTIONAL zoos.

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Conservationists (including Richard Branson) the world over campaign to conserve lemurs

Friday 31st October marks the first ever World Lemur Day, a celebration spearheaded by the Malagasy primate expert group Groupe d’Etude et de Recherche sur les Primates (GERP), to raise awareness of lemur diversity and highlight critical conservation needs at both national and international levels.

More than just a celebration, World Lemur Day is also intended to show the Malagasy government how the rest of the world is interested in lemurs; encouraging the government to conserve them.

The Malagasy President came into office in late January of this year and lemur conservationists the world over await positive changes to protect these primates.

Timothy Smart, British Ambassador to Madagascar, said: “Lemurs are now the world’s most threatened group of primates. We are urging President Rajaonarimampianina and the Government of Madagascar to increase drastically their efforts to protect lemurs and their remaining forest habitats which are a unique natural and cultural heritage for all Malagasies and the World. We stand ready to assist them in these efforts.”

The largest threat to lemurs is habitat destruction (caused by man) and also subsistence hunting. This is not to be confused with commercial hunting; Malagasy communities hunt lemurs for survival.

It is perhaps a coincidence that World Lemur Day falls on the same day as Halloween, but it fits well: The word ‘Lemures’ was used in Roman mythology for ghosts or spirits of the dead, and conservationists the world over are trying to ensure this does not become a reality for these primates.

Richard Branson, who is known for conserving lemurs on his private islands in the Caribbean, said: “There probably used to be 150 of these magnificent lemur species, some bigger than gorillas, and sadly we're now down to 101 species. As their habitat disappears and they continue to get killed for food, there's a real danger that the number could drop well below 100. World Lemur Day will hopefully raise awareness of the dangers and make sure this never happens. As a species, we must make sure that no other species on this planet is ever lost again.”

A budget of only $7.6 million is required to implement the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN)’s conservation strategy for lemurs and their forest habitats. The funds collected from this World Lemur Day will contribute to that budget.

Christoph Schwitzer, Director of Conservation at the Bristol Zoological Society and vice chairman of the IUCN Primate Specialist Group, responsible for primates in Madagascar, said: “Madagascar is unique in having such a large number of primate species that only occur there and nowhere else in the world, but it is also unique in the extreme level of threat that these animals are facing. The IUCN lemur conservation strategy gives us the toolset to fight lemur extinctions. We now need to pull together all available resources and implement it!”

Bristol Zoological Society will be joining in the celebrations of World Lemur Day on Friday 31st October, by holding a number of lemur-related activities at the Wild Place Project’s Madagascar exhibit, which has its own Madagascan school hut and market stall.

The Wild Place Project is home to mongoose lemurs, which are Critically Endangered and ring-tailed lemurs, which have recently gone from being Vulnerable to Endangered.

Guests visiting the Wild Place Project on Friday will also be able to see the lemurs tucking into pumpkins. Will Walker, animal manager at the wildlife attraction said: “Lemurs love to play with pumpkins and eat the succulent flesh and plump seeds, which are a great addition to their regular diet as they are high in vitamins A, C, potassium, protein and fibre.”

A day in the life of a Dublin zookeeper

"I started officially as a zookeeper when I was 15, although it wasn't really my first day on the job. My dad was a keeper and a lot of the keepers' kids spent plenty of time in the zoo. The novelty never wore off; it was such an adventurous playground, and you ran around thinking you were Tarzan. From the time I could walk, I used to go there, so, in many ways, working there was a natural progression. I was counting down the days until I could finish the Inter Cert and work there.

Captive rhinos exposed to urban rumbles

The soundtrack to a wild rhinoceros's life is wind passing through the savannah grass, birds chirping, and distant animals moving across the plains. But a rhinoceros in a zoo listens to children screaming, cars passing, and the persistent hum of urban life.
A group of researchers from Texas believes that this discrepancy in soundscape may be contributing to rhinos' difficulties thriving and reproducing in captivity. During the 168th Meeting of the Acoustical Society of America (ASA), which will be held October 27-31, 2014, at the Indianapolis Marriott Downtown Hotel, they will present their acoustical analysis of a captive  habitat, a first step towards understanding the impact of  on these .
Though zoologists have studied the impact of factors like diet and hygiene on rhino reproductive health, sound has been largely ignored. However, rhinoceroses have some of the keenest senses of hearing in the animal kingdom, able to perceive infrasonic sounds below the frequency range of human range of hearing. In the wild, they can sense predators coming from miles away by the vibrations their footsteps send through the ground. Because rhinos are so sensitive, noise that humans don't notice – or can't even hear – could be distressing and disruptive to them, negatively impacting their health, s

Exclusive: Owners of Spain's Parques Reunidos ponder $2.6 billion sale -sources

The private equity owners of Parques Reunidos are sounding out interest for a sale that could value the Spanish zoo, marine and water park operator at about 2 billion euros ($2.6 billion), four sources familiar with the matter said on Thursday.

The company, which is owned by UK-based private equity fund Arle Capital, could come up for sale as soon as the first half of 2015, the sources said.

They cautioned that no banks had been hired as yet and any sale process could still fall through.

Arle Capital declined to comment. A spokeswoman for Parques Reunidos denied the company was for sale.

Madrid-based Parques Reunidos operates 72 sites around the world including Italy's Mirabilandia, France's Aquasplash and the Miami Seaquarium, which it bought in July this year.

Parques struggled through the financial cri

RWS false advertising for dolphin attraction?

Few things are as magical as spotting a double rainbow. Swimming with dolphins is one of them. Unfortunately, unlike countries like Hawaii or Australia, dolphins aren’t native to the waters of Singapore, and not all of us have the privilege to travel overseas to do that. The next best alternative? Dolphin interaction programmes at Dolphin Island.” – Marine Life Park Blog, the official blog for Resorts World Sentosa’s Marine Life Park
As magical as it may sound, the reality is far from it. The above, taken from the Marine Life Park blog promoting the dolphin interaction programme by the marine park, runs contrary to documented cases of dolphin sighting in Singapore’s local waters.
Nature lovers who frequent our southern islands have in October 2014 - draft

~°v°~  ~°v°~  ~°v°~  ~°v°~  ~°v°~

Hello ZooLex Friend,
We have worked for your enjoyment!



The redevelopment of a sea lion enclosure at Chester Zoo allowed the 
creation of a Giant Otter facility that was particulaly designed for 
breeding this endangered species. The exhibit offers a visitor shelter 
with underwater viewing and interactive elements with messages about 
biology and conservation of this species.

We would like to thank Chloe Helm for presenting this exhibit in ZooLex.



Thanks to Eduardo Díaz García we are able to offer the Spanish 
translation of a previously published presentation on a Giant Otter 
exhibit at Zoo Zlín:

Nutrias Gigantes, ZOO a zámek Zlín


We keep working on ZooLex ...

The ZooLex Zoo Design Organization is a non-profit organization
registered in Austria (ZVR-Zahl 933849053). ZooLex runs a professional
zoo design website and distributes this newsletter. More information and

Celebrating Plants and the Planet:

Plant news you can use! Were you aware you needed some hot plant news?
October's news links
(NEWS/Botanical News) aim to worm their way into your thoughts:

. Is there anyone in our field who isn't aware that sloths descend
from the trees to defecate? Why do they take the risk? It has to do with the
algae in their fur. Oh and moths. Sounds plausible.

. Many plants of the savannas have defensive thorns to deter
browsers. Who protects the plants that lack thorns? Perhaps lions!

. Diverse native plant communities protect themselves from invasive
plants by harboring hungry hungry caterpillars. Many a truth is revealed in
children's books.

. As increasing CO2 levels acidify oceans, verdant seagrass beds
protect marine life from harm.

. With the climate and ecosystems changing, what's the landscape
restoration community to do? Assist landscapes in becoming the next great
thing? Or sit back and see what happens? 

It is stinkbug season here. Taking a page, perhaps, from the lionfish
control handbook, some now propose eating them

Please share these stories with associates, staff, docents and - most
importantly - visitors! 

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Or visit - new
stories every day as well as hundreds of stories from the past few years.


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Saturday, October 18, 2014

The SeaWorld® & Busch Gardens® Conservation Fund Finalizes 2014 Grant Recipients

The SeaWorld® & Busch Gardens® Conservation Fund Finalizes 2014 Grant Recipients

Fifty-seven wildlife conservation projects around the world are receiving much needed funding from the SeaWorld® & Busch Gardens® Conservation Fund this year. Just over $1 million is being distributed among these projects bringing the amount awarded since the Fund was created in 2003, to more than $11 million.

A majority of the grants awarded this year, and every year, are for projects with defined timelines and long-term objectives and goals, but occasionally the Fund receives requests for crisis grants when conservation organizations are faced with unforeseeable challenges.

Crisis Grant – Tacugama Chimpanzee Sanctuary:
In late August the Tacugama Chimpanzee Sanctuary in Sierra Leon, west Africa submitted a crisis grant for funding. The Sanctuary is a non-profit organization established in 1995 to rehabilitate orphaned or abandoned chimpanzees with the goal of releasing them back into their natural habitat. A portion of the Sanctuary's expenses are typically covered by income generated by visitors to the sanctuary and its eco-lodges.

However, due to the devastating Ebola outbreak that was confirmed in Sierra Leon in May and the resulting drop in tourism to the area, the Sanctuary's funding was negatively impacted and the care of the chimpanzees jeopardized. The SeaWorld & Busch Gardens Conservation Fund board reviewed and approved the crisis grant request and provided financial support to offset their funding issues.

Standard Grant – Painted Dog Conservation:
Painted dogs, also known as wild African dogs, are among Africa's most endangered species. One of the biggest threats they face is poaching for bush meat. An organization called Painted Dog Conservation has formed anti-poaching units that patrol 10,500 square kilometers in Zimbabwe, removing snares laid by poachers.  The Fund has supported the organization by providing funding for these small, yet highly trained groups.

"The support from SeaWorld and Busch Gardens remains pivotal to the success of Painted Dog Conservation," said Peter Biliston, Managing Director of Painted Dog Conservation in Zimbabwe. "The fact that they have supported our anti-poaching units for many years shows that they really understand the complexity of wildlife conservation. They understand that permanent change does not happen overnight and it takes long-term committed support to make a difference."

Standard Grant – SANCCOB:
African penguins, one of 17 penguin species, are classified as endangered and their numbers are in rapid decline. The wild population is down to 2 percent of the original 1 million breeding pairs counted in 1930. A group called SANCCOB in South Africa works to rehabilitate adult penguins, to raise abandoned chicks to increase the wild population. Research indicates that the wild African penguin population is 19 percent higher entirely due to SANCCOB's oiled wildlife response efforts. The Fund has supported SANCCOB not only with financial support, but has also sent aviculturists from SeaWorld to South Africa to assist with penguin rehabilitation.

Standard Grant – Ecology Project International (EPI):
The Caribbean coast of Costa Rica is the world's fourth most important nesting beach for critically endangered leatherback sea turtles. Without protection from illegal harvesting and other threats, 80 percent of leatherback sea turtle nests are lost. The Ecology Project International organization will protect leatherback populations by working to reduce the illegal harvest of nests and improving nesting habitats. They also will work with Costa Rican teachers and students to increase their ecological knowledge so they can better understand their role in the long term survival of leatherbacks and conservation in general.

For more information on the SeaWorld & Busch Gardens Conservation Fund and the other projects supported by the Fund, like the Fund on Facebook.

About the SeaWorld & Busch Gardens Conservation Fund
A non-profit, 501(c)3 organization, the SeaWorld® & Busch Gardens® Conservation Fund supports wildlife research, habitat protection, animal rescue and conservation education in the U.S. and countries around the world. The Fund provides an outlet for park visitors to help protect wildlife and, because SeaWorld Parks & Entertainment™ provides all administrative and development costs as well as staffing and infrastructure, commits 100 percent of donations to on-the-ground wildlife conservation efforts.

Thursday, October 2, 2014


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Product Description
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Zoological professionals and organizations engage daily with countless challenges and opportunities. Excellence Beyond Compliance empowers them to channel their passion and dedication into concrete actions to better serve the animals in their care. It is an essential guidebook that will improve—and even transform—those who put its principles into practice.

Some of the key items addressed for zoological organizations include:

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• Preparing for inspections, with tips on creating inspection checklists, conducting entrance briefings and ensuring key staff availability during the inspection
• Interacting with inspectors during and after inspections, including advice on how to respectfully address differences of opinion with an inspector
• Utilizing self-certified compliance reporting to maintain compliance and document improvements between inspections and accreditation reviews
• Designing Animal Welfare Enhancement Plans and Zoo, Aquarium and Park Improvement Plans
• Addressing serious incidents and emergencies to ensure the safety of animals and people
• Handling investigations, complaints, and other challenges in a manner that promotes exceptional animal welfare and organizational excellence
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For twenty-five years, author and attorney James F. Gesualdi has dedicated himself to legal, regulatory and strategic engagement with animal welfare and wildlife conservation issues. Excellence Beyond Compliance distills the experience and wisdom he has gained along the way into an inspiring yet eminently practical guide to bring people together to enhance the lives and welfare of animals.

Advance recognition for EXCELLENCE BEYOND COMPLIANCE: Enhancing Animal Welfare Through the Constructive Use of the Animal Welfare Act
“Jim Gesualdi is a knowledgeable, tireless, and enthusiastic advocate for improving the welfare of animals in human care. His Excellence Beyond Compliance program is a unique resource, full of advice and useful tools gleaned from decades of experience, to help those of us dedicated to caring for animals do our very best each day. As he frequently says: ‘It's all about the animals.’ ”

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General Counsel
San Diego Zoo Global

“Gesualdi’s primer is a ‘must have’ for anyone or any facility attempting to navigate the Animal Welfare Act. His team approach to welfare challenges every staff member to recognize that their performance, no matter what the task, should translate to improving the welfare of the animals in their care. My favorite quote: ‘EXCELLENCE BEYOND COMPLIANCE is an ongoing process rather than a destination.’ His challenge of continuous improvement takes us from just meeting requirements to developing a culture dedicated to welfare, health and safety for animals and their caregivers.”

Yvonne Nadler, DVM, MPH
Consultant to the Zoological community on all hazards contingency planning

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Wednesday, October 1, 2014



The Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust, registered as a charity in 1963, manages a worldwide species recovery program. Durrell’s headquarters is in Jersey and serves as a centre for breeding, research, professional training and fund raising.
A limited number of work experience places for students are available each year. Students stay for a minimum of two months and a maximum of a year, during which time they gain practical experience in the work of the Trust in the conservation and captive management of endangered species. Students are expected to help carry out everyday duties such as cleaning and food preparation, work closely with the keepers and are given a unique insight into animal management and the onsite contributions to global conservation. Students may have the opportunity to carry out a research project. Please note that any projects carried out must be approved by Durrell staff before arrival. Placements are coordinated by the International Training Centre. Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust is under no obligation to mentor projects.

It is important to note that the Trust cannot provide either funding or accommodation. Placement students must therefore be self-financing, and the costs of living in Jersey should be considered before applying. Some students find part-time jobs to help support their placement. Due to Jersey employment laws Durrell is only issued a certain amount of licenses each year for non-Jersey residents studying relevant degrees. Before accepting your placement you must ensure that you are able to commit to the full length of time, otherwise you may be depriving someone else the opportunity.


• Applicants must be at least 18.
• Applicants should be studying or have have recently finished a relevant course of
• A high degree of fitness is required as the work is physically demanding.
• Any medical problems, allergies, disabilities etc. which may affect the student’s
work must be explained at the application stage.
• Applications are assessed on their merits, and successful candidates should
confirm their acceptance of a place as soon as possible.
• A good command of English is essential.

Commitment by Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust and students 

The Trust will endeavour to organise an appropriate programme of work experience for
placement students in order to ensure that each student receives a wide-ranging education in captive animal management and conservation. Where time allows, Durrell staff will provide guidance and support to students undertaking a research project during their placement. The placement programme coordinator will also undertake to provide any assessments of students’ work required by their university or college. Students are expected to conduct themselves professionally and to work to the same standards as permanent staff. The Trust also requires a copy of any publications, reports, articles, dissertations, etc, which come out of work conducted here.

Departmental assignments 

Students are assigned to placements within the zoo according to their course requirements and interests. Students spend at least two months at Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust. Students must realise that places in each department are limited and that it may not be possible to meet all requests.

Hours of work and time off 

Students work a full-time, five-day week (Animal and Veterinary Departments: 0800-1700 hr in winter and 0800-1730 hr in summer; Conservation Education Department: 0830-1730 hr) and days off are scheduled by the appropriate Department Head; these may not include weekends. Students may also occasionally be asked to work with permanent staff outside normal working hours if necessary. A minimum of two weeks advance notice, and preferably more, must be given of holiday time.


Animal departments 

Spending time in the animal departments will enable students to gain first hand experience of working with a variety of animal species. The role involves the following:

o Assisting with routine tasks on section such as food preparation, enclosure cleaning, animal feeding, behavioural observations, enclosure maintenance and watching veterinary procedures.
o Opportunities to learn practical captive husbandry skills (nutritional requirements, environmental requirements, normal behaviour, reproductive management etc)
o Students will also learn about the species biology and conservation issues relating to each species worked with.

The Bird Department 

The bird department has ten members of staff. Roughly divided into two, one section consists of wildfowl, cranes, ibis, flamingos and parrots, while the other comprises the passerines, pink pigeons, pheasants and hornbills. The department works with over 50 species of bird and has, over the years, worked on the recovery programs of many species. These include the pink pigeon, Madagascar teal, Waldrapp ibis, Meller's duck, Mauritius kestrel, Bali starling, Montserrat oriole, St. Lucian parrot and Echo parakeet.

Students can expect to be involved with routine work such as; feeding, food preparation and general upkeep of aviaries. There may be some restrictions on student access to aviaries, particularly during the breeding season. Time spent working in the bird department can give a valuable insight into zoo work and the conservation management of birds in captivity. The bird department has currently has ten keepers and work with three students at a time

The Mammal Department 

The Mammal Department currently has fifteen members of staff and is divided into four sections: (1) apes, (2) macaques, mongooses, bears and other South American mammal species, (3) lemurs, bats, new world monkeys. At any one time we have one student on section (2) and three on section (3). Students are normally assigned to only one, or at most two, sections during their stay. Students should also note that it is rarely possible to work on the ape section.

The Herpetology Department 

The Herpetology Department has five members of staff and work with one student. This department holds a diverse collection of amphibians and reptiles, as well as several invertebrate species, and is actively involved in a number of conservation projects focusing on species from around the world. Students can expect to be involved with a variety of activities, including daily husbandry routines for some of the species in our collection (please note that there are restrictions on which species students can work directly with), general upkeep of enclosures, and other routine work essential to the day-to-day functioning of the Department. The range of jobs a student is allowed to do will depend on demonstrated skills and reliability, and will be reviewed throughout the placement.

Other departments

The Veterinary Department and Laboratory 

The Veterinary Department, staffed by two veterinarians, a microbiologist and a veterinary nurse, the department is responsible for the health of the animal collection in Jersey and in captive breeding programmes abroad. Our Veterinary department only takes 4th and 5th year students and graduates for work experience. Students will shadow the veterinary staff and will be involved in all aspects of health care from clinical and laboratory diagnosis to treatment, preventive medicine and anesthetics. Students will be expected to carry out a short research project of benefit to the trust, because this takes time, preference will be given to students asking for longer stays of at least two months.

Students also work in our laboratory logging in samples and assisting the microbiologist in analyses. Students will initially set up direct preparations, flotations and inoculating agar plates, but progressing over a period of time to independently conducting analyses according to skill levels.

Conservation Education 

Students will work as part of the Visitor Experience/Conservation Education team, delivering wildlife conservation messages to school groups, members and visitors to the wildlife park at Durrell's headquarters in Jersey. You will have the opportunity to get involved with developing signage and delivering animal talks to the visiting public as well as getting involved with curriculum-based sessions for school groups and informal workshops for the younger members of the Trust. They will also have the chance to get involved with surveying visitors etc through a public participation project to develop new interpretation materials for the site. The chosen individual should have excellent
communication skills, a keen interest in wildlife conservation and be able to work well as part of a team and independently.

The Marketing Department 

Students will work as part of the marketing team where they will have the opportunity to get involved in the following areas; PR and marketing campaigns; managing Durrell’s website and assisting with social media tools; be involved in market research and learn how Durrell’s conservation work can be effectively communicated to appropriate target audiences; and help with Durrell’s fundraising events. The chosen individual should have excellent communication skills, a keen interest in wildlife conservation and be able to work well as part of a team and independently.


Reference Material, Library Facilities and Computer Facilities 

Durrell’s main library facilities and computer facilities are at the International Training Centre, Les Noyers, next door to the zoo. The Sir William Collins Memorial Library comprises a collection of scientific periodicals and journals. The Phillips Reference Library holds a collection of books, and special bibliographic files (on species, habitats, etc). Loans from these collections may be possible for placement students, by arrangement with the library supervisor. There is a computer lab equipped with 20 computers running Windows XP. They are networked with internet connection, Office 2003 and a range of specialist software relevant to conservation. Free wifi is also available. Limited quantities of photocopying can be undertaken in the Trust’s main office. A charge may be made for large quantities.

Animal Records System

Since 1990, the Trust has maintained a computerised records system using ARKS (Animal Record Keeping System). Up-to-date information is readily available on individual animals in the collection. Information from before 1990 is on cards, which can be inspected by arrangement.

Other Activities 

The Trust frequently hosts visiting scientists and conservationists, many of whom give talks during their stay. Trust staff also give talks on their own work and organise discussion sessions on topics of interest. Talks by our Senior management team are organized for students throughout the year to give an insight into how a conservation organization is run. Students are encouraged to attend any of these activities.



There are bed and breakfasts and guest houses located nearby. Others are located further away and some form of transport is necessary. An accommodation list is provided on acceptance. There is heavy demand for places, and so booking well in advance is essential.

Cost of living 

While some costs are lower in Jersey than on the mainland (petrol, alcohol, cigarettes, etc.), basics tend to be slightly more expensive. Rents are quite high, and you can expect to spend £80-£120 a week in rent depending on the size and facilities.

Access to Durrell 

Students have free access to the grounds during their stay and are entitled to the same discounts as apply to the Trust’s permanent staff in Durrell’s restaurant and shop.


The Trust provides sweatshirts, and T-shirts for students during their placement. For work, you should bring sensible clothing (long trousers for winter, shorts if desired in the summer) and footwear (e.g. walking boots). Students are expected to be neat and tidy at all times.

Health and security 

Whilst all reasonable precautions are taken to ensure safety and security, the Trust cannot accept responsibility for any loss, injury or illness however caused. Anyone working in zoo grounds is covered for general accident by the zoo’s own insurance. Belongings should also be insured. A tetanus injection should be obtained well in advance of arrival. If you are working with the bats a rabies vaccination is also necessary.


Visas may be required for some nationalities and intending visitors should check this well in advance. Depending on nationality, a visa may also be required to enter the United Kingdom.

Travel arrangements and local transport

There are direct flights between Jersey and most regional airports in the United Kingdom, and from some regional airports on the continent. There are also regular sea services by ferry and high-speed catamaran from the south coast of England, to St Malo and Dinard in France, and to the other Channel Islands. As Jersey attracts a large number of tourists in the main summer season, reservations should be made well in advance at this time of year. Taxis are available from all ports of entry, and a bus service from St Helier, the main town. Durrell is situated in the north-eastern part of the island, i.e. about 5 miles (8 km) north of St Helier and the docks, and about 10 miles north-east of the airport. Bus services to all other parts of the island are linked through St Helier, although there is a limited evening service.

Application process 

We take applications in the autumn for the following June and September placements. We ask interested students to send in a CV and covering. If the application is shortlisted students are then asked to attend a Skype interview. Placements can start from June for a short summer placement, or September for a 10-12 month placement, and will require an agreement with the university.